For Students: eNotes’ Intern Offers Writing Tips

5 Writing Habits to Ditch Now

Our fabulous and world-worn eNotes intern returns to share cautionary tales from the battlefield of her college experience. Okay, so really she just graduated from UCLA and is dead smart, but that just means you should pay attention to what she says even more.

This time, she covers the five habits most detrimental to writing well. Follow her sound advice, or fear the wrath of the red marker…

Need more writing help? We have plenty of support in our Grammar and Writing topics waiting to answer your questions!

1. Using the “Synonym” function in Word as a crutch

When you realize that you’re overusing a word, it gets really tempting to simply switch it out with another, helpfully recommended by Word itself. This can be a great tool to use, as it may help to point you in a new direction. However, blindly trusting Word’s thesaurus can also be treacherous. Often, the recommendations it gives are only similar to the word you desire.

The difference between two so-called synonyms can be marked. Take for instance a word I used earlier: “treacherous.” Treacherous, as defined by Dictionary.com, means “characterized by faithlessness or readiness to betray trust, traitorous,” but it also connotes “deceptive, untrustworthy, or unreliable” as well as “dangerous, hazardous.” This word was specifically chosen because it encompassed all of those definitions. However, Word suggests that it be substituted with “unfaithful,” “disloyal,” and “deceitful.” While it is true that all of those words are related to “treacherous,” none of them also add the element of danger that the original word does.

By blindly swapping one word for another without taking the time to consider what it means, you may lose an important element of what you are trying to convey. This can have a drastic effect on your writing, and it also tells your audience that you don’t know what a word means. Rule of thumb: double-check any suggestions Word gives you, just to make sure that it’s an appropriate substitution.

2. Passive voice

I’ll admit it: I have problems myself with passive voice. Even as I wrote that last sentence, I had to stop myself from saying “passive voice is something I have problems with.” In a nutshell, passive voice occurs when you make the receiver of an action the subject of a sentence. Here’s an example: “The bread was baked by Harry,” versus “Harry baked the bread.” Arguments against passive voice say that it makes your writing indirect and impersonal, which is never desirable. That is not to say that passive voice is never appropriate – it can be used to place emphasis on the receiver over the agent of an action, as well as to deny responsibility of an action entirely (the good old governmental favorite: “Mistakes were made.”) But make sure that passive voice is a conscious stylistic choice, and not simply the result of a lack of attention to detail.

3. Wordiness

This often goes hand-in-hand with passive voice. Wordiness makes your writing seem awkward and unfocused. Depending on the context, it can also imply that you are scrambling to meet the required word count. Keep in mind that when your teacher or professor assigns an essay, they (or their TAs) will end up reading anywhere from twenty to a hundred papers over a period of just a few days. Wordiness disrupts the flow of your paper, and makes it harder to read and understand. The more direct your writing is, the more likely it will stand out amongst all of the other confusing, imprecise ideas in the pile. Keeping it short, simple, and direct will allow your audience to focus on your ideas rather than the writing itself.

4. Quotation abuse

This goes for almost any type of writing, whether it’s for English, history, or even a science paper: block quotes should be used with extreme caution. They wouldn’t exist if they weren’t entirely unnecessary, but for the most part your six-page paper on 1984 should not require quotes longer than two lines. Relying too heavily on the original work shows a lack of your own unique ideas. It also has the unfortunate side effect of making your writing boring. If your teacher only wanted to read George Orwell’s work, they wouldn’t have assigned the paper in the first place. The general rule of thumb is: for every line of quotation, you should have twice as much analysis. Only quote the parts of the work that directly support the ideas you are trying to convey.

That said, make sure you are quoting enough of the original work as well. Your claims need evidence to support them, because it shows that you are not pulling them out of thin air. You need to strike that balance between too much and too little, because failure to do so weakens your argument considerably.

5. A semicolon for a semicolon’s sake

The semicolon is a tricky beast. A lot of people aren’t entirely sure what its function is, but use it regardless because they feel that a paper needs a semicolon to take it to the next level. If you aren’t sure what the function of a semicolon is, don’t attempt to use one. Your writing will not magically become better with the introduction of a semicolon, and the misuse of it will be a red flag in the middle of your work that screams that you don’t know what you’re doing.

If you still really want to use a semicolon, here’s the cases in which a semicolon is appropriate:

  • Separating items in a list that use internal punctuation. Here’s an example:

Several people came to the party: Anna, a friend of Steven; Joel, my brother’s coworker; and Madison, the chairman’s daughter.

  • Separating two independent clauses that are closely related without the use of a coordinating conjunction.

My computer is acting up; I think I need to take it in to be looked at.

  • Separating two independent clauses that are linked by a transitional phrase.

I wish I could do something for you; unfortunately, it is out of my hands at this point.

Except for the first case, the most important thing to remember about a semicolon is that each part before and after this punctuation should be able to serve as a complete sentence on its own.

If you have any doubt over whether you are using a semicolon properly, just abandon it. Oftentimes it can be replaced by a period without any impact on your writing. It is better to be safe than sorry when it comes to semicolons.


Hemingway’s Last Farewell

“But after I got them to leave and shut the door and turned off the light it wasn’t any good. It was like saying good-by to a statue. After a while I went out and left the hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain.”
- Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms, Chapter 41

So ends Ernest Hemingway’s 1929 novel A Farewell to Arms, a famously simple, perfunctory line at the end of an epic tale of war and love. But it almost wasn’t to be.

It has become the stuff of writing lore that Hemingway admitted to writing 39 variations on the novel’s ending before deciding on the published version. 39 could-have-been lines that the public never got to see–until now, that is. 

Hemingway’s long-time publishing house, Scribner, is releasing a new edition of A Farewell to Arms, complete with every possible alternate ending the novelist imagined (there are actually a total of 47, by his grandson’s careful analysis). The edition will also feature the original cover art for the book, at right, as well as the list of Hemingway’s other options for its title: these include “Love in War,” “World Enough and Time,” “Every Night and All,” “Of Wounds and Other Causes,” and “The Enchantment.” The last was crossed out by the author, but who knows how close the work could have been to being called by one of these other names.

The New York Times was able to provide a sneak peek to a few of these 47 endings, each of which was numbered and named. They range from the nihilistic…

No. 1, “The Nada Ending”:

“That is all there is to the story. Catherine died and you will die and I will die and that is all I can promise you.”

..to the optimistic.

No. 7, “The Live-Baby Ending”:

“There is no end except death and birth is the only beginning.”

One was even suggested by Hemingway’s good friend F. Scott Fitzgerald, and is named after him. In this, the author concluded that the world “breaks everyone,” and those “it does not break it kills…”

No. 34, “The Fitzgerald Ending”:

“It kills the very good and very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.”

If you recognize the quote, it did in fact make its way into the published copy of the book, but earlier on, in Chapter 34.

So, why the need to uncover these now, after many decades safely tucked away within the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library? Though Hemingway is still a strong seller for his publisher, they admit the need to constantly present his body of work afresh. There has also been a push to place the author’s collected works further into the limelight than his formidable persona, which has appeared recently quite dramatized in the films “Midnight in Paris” and “Hemingway and Gellhorn,” as well as the bestselling novel The Paris Wife. Finally, the fact that the collection of alternate closing lines exists is a testament to a bygone way of writing, as well as to Hemingway’s commitment to “getting the words right,” as he once put it. With so many writers today composing on computers, would it be possible to uncover such a glimpse into the writing process as this? But also, is it fair that we should get to see it?

Not according to Sean Hemingway, one of the author’s grandsons:

“I think people who are interested in writing and trying to write themselves will find it interesting to look at a great work and have some insight to how it was done,” he says. “But he is a writer who has captured the imagination of the American public, and these editions are interesting because they really focus on his work. Ultimately that’s his lasting contribution.”

Others may disagree. Do you feel that the drafts should go unpublished? Or are you happier knowing how Hemingway arrived at A Farewell to Arms‘ classic ending? Did Hemingway, in your opinion, make the right choice with the ending he selected?


Small Spaces, Powerful Words: Penguin Books’ “Making the Mini Modern Classics”

Penguin Books “Modern Classics” line  is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary this year. To honor that landmark, the press is offering fifty titles in “mini” form. Each text measures a mere six inches by four inches. You can purchase each one individually or buy the entire box set. The works offered range “from Beckett to Saki, Nabokov to Kafka and Updike to Wodehouse.”

When the company decided to offer this anniversary item to the public, the format presented some unique challenges for the copywriters who compose the “blurbs” on the back of each text. Those writers have just a few inches, and therefore, only a few seconds, to convince you to buy the book. They must “get across what makes each writer’s work unique, what their style is, their importance, their influence, and give a flavor of what is actually in the stories as well all in about fifty words.”

Louise Willder, the Copywriting Manager at Penguin, explains that they had a bit under nine months to write all fifty blurbs with their in-house copywriting staff—not a great deal of time to have read, absorbed, and researched relevant facts. The blurbs were then reviewed and refined by the entire staff until everyone was happy with them.

You can listen to those involved with the process speak a bit more in-depth about the making of the Mini-Classics in a series of videos produced by Penguin. Here is Part Five, “Making the Mini Modern Classics: Copywriting.”


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